How to manage your time??


I have any solutions for all of you who need to manage the time.Here they are….

   

 

       Time is the great equalizer. Whether you are smart or dumb, ugly or beautiful, you have the same 168 hours each week that everyone else has. How you spend that valuable commodity determines the quality of your life just as surely as if you walked into a department store and ordered it. Time is more precious than any possession.

       You have probably already noticed that time passes more quickly for you than it once did. Those endless hours and days of childhood slip away by adolescence, and adulthood brings an ever increasing acceleration. Most college freshmen fall prey to the conviction that they have enough time to do everything, enough time to forgo planning. A dangerous self-deception. One of the purposes of college is to determine which people can control their time in order to meet their goals. Think about it. Most blue-collar or pink-collar jobs require employees to punch a time clock. The employer structures the time and the tasks. But college graduates who have professional jobs structure their own time and often the tasks as well. A hidden requirement for success in college and in the professional world is the desire and the ability to use time wisely. Such a skill is not instantly conferred on graduation, but it is slowly and painfully constructed throughout the college years.

       Most students shudder at the thought of controlling their time; they envision a jail of schedules and charts that would not allow them to feel free. The irony of that prejudice is that good time management is a key–a key to achieving goals and enjoying life. The beginning is simple, a promise to yourself to be honest, and the first stage is the willingness to differentiate among fantasies, dreams, and goals.
       I may fantasize that I am a rock star, adored by millions, or I may dream that upon graduation from college I will acquire a glamorous job with a large salary. This latter dream usually involves rewards but not the work itself. Fantasies and dreams are alike in that they are always effortless. No work, no struggle, but instantaneous. The magic of Hollywood. Fantasies are impossible; dreams are possible, but unlikely. Fantasies and dreams help us to escape. They serve no other purpose. Escape can be good entertainment, but goals are the markers on the road of accomplishment.

 

 

Set Goals

       Goals are those accomplishments that we deliberately set out to achieve. They may be small and simple: I’ll do the dishes tonight. Or they may be large, complex, and long term: I want to enjoy my work and do it well, or I want to create a family based on love and respect. We may choose goals in every aspect of our lives: personal, social, academic, occupational, athletic, spiritual. A broad goal, such as good health, may spawn many smaller goals, such as maintaining a regular exercise schedule, eating a healthy diet, and getting regular medical checkups. Some goals are behaviors we want to decrease or increase or maintain.
       New Year’s resolutions — those wild promises we make to ourselves after the indulgences of the holidays–are rarely kept, for we try to change too much too quickly. The truth of the matter is that if we want to change a behavior permanently we usually have to change it slowly. Changing a behavior requires some discipline, but not the amount most people imagine. The way to change a behavior slowly is to make a small promise to ourselves, keep it, and reward ourselves. A typical example would be a freshman who has decided to attend his 8 A.M. class the next day. He knows he needs to go to class to pass, so he promises himself that he will go to sleep by midnight. He sets the alarm for 7 A.M. and places it across the room. When it goes off, he reminds himself of his promise and why it is important. As he’s getting ready, he compliments himself on his behavior and tells himself that going to class is important.
       How we spend the minutes and hours of our days determines what we accomplish. Thinking about studying will not help our grades. Only studying does. Talking about our weight while we are eating pizza does not cause weight loss. Exercise and a sensible diet will control our weight. Those links from behaviors to accomplishments to goals are crucial. Do our behaviors and accomplishments lead us to our goals or away from them?

       Most freshmen would like a satisfying collegiate experience that includes good grades and a social life that is fun and emotionally satisfying. They do not enjoy great amounts of stress. Students can often have other goals about work, family, sports. If your current behaviors will not lead you to your goals, try the following three steps for two weeks. This time management system is not a jail.
       Write down three goals you want to accomplish this semester. You may want a 3.0, a date with the redhead in your math class, or a better relationship with your roommate. Your goal may be large or small. If your life seems out of control right now, write down one goal for this week. What will you have to do to accomplish that goal?

 

Key Behavior

       Isolate the key behaviors for your goals. Key academic behaviors include going to class, paying attention and taking notes, reading the assignments when they are assigned, keeping an academic calendar with all tests noted. Key financial behaviors include writing down every check in the register (and keeping a running balance), planning a weekly budget, paying bills on time. Key personal behaviors include handling business details such as insurance and car inspections promptly, keeping your personal space neat, getting adequate sleep.

       We lie to ourselves about key behaviors. They are often boring and mundane, and we want to delay them. Actually, we want someone else to do them. We want them to disappear. So we lie; we say that we will do it later, after the party or the movie. Tomorrow. Those lies usually result in late papers (lower grades), late payments (penalties), lower self-esteem. The more lies, the greater the amount of chaos.
       Those lies are part of a larger behavior pattern called procrastination. We may procrastinate in just one area of our life such as studying or that pattern may permeate the entirety of our life. Procrastination occurs when we deliberately choose to delay or omit a behavior that we believe we should do. The reasons are legion. The most common cause of procrastination is our unwillingness to recognize and to pay the “price tag” for an outcome we say we want. An example would be that we want an A on the next history test, but the price tag is that we have to read and study the chapters (15 hours), attend class for those five weeks (15 hours), participate in a study group (10 hours), and study individually (8 hours). Forty-eight hours for one test! How much do we really want that A? And then there is no guarantee that we will make it; that 48 hours just gives us the opportunity to achieve that grade. Any goal can be subjected to that kind of scrutiny. Price tags are usually much higher than we want to admit. We always look for a bargain; witness the current spate of television ads about weight loss without effort or denial.
       There are more serious causes of procrastination. We may be so overcommitted that exhaustion engulfs us. We may be so bound to the conviction that what we do should be perfect that we are afraid to start, for whatever we accomplish it will not be perfect. We may be rebellious, even to the extent of rebelling against ourselves and our own goals. We may be afraid to succeed because our families or significant others have told us we are failures and we believe them. We may feel more comfortable with failure than with success. We may be depressed emotionally and feel so “dragged out” that we cannot start any new behavior. We may be lazy and simply unwilling to work.

       If procrastination is a characteristic of your life and you dislike the consequences of it, then take some time to reflect on why you do it. The suggestions that follow in this essay will help you overcome a mild case of procrastination, but if your behavior stems from serious causes and is engulfing your life, then seek professional help through your campus counseling center. Procrastination is a learned behavior; you can learn not to do it. You can learn to set your goals, plan your actions, and accomplish those actions in a timely manner.

       If you want to change how you manage your own behaviors, then select a goal that is important to you. Write down the key behaviors for that goal. Which ones are you currently doing? Which key behavior would you like to change? Focus on it. What can you do to increase the likelihood you will do that behavior?


Make a Plan

       Make a plan to make that key behavior a habit. When a key behavior becomes a habit (a behavior we don’t have to think about), we benefit. We are doing the right thing without a struggle.
       Imagine a student in a freshman math class. She wants to make at least a B and realizes that a key behavior is completing the homework problems on time. Her class is Tuesday–Thursday, and she often does her homework late on Monday and Wednesday evenings. By that time, she has forgotten what went on in class, and the problems seem overwhelmingly difficult. Two key behaviors for her goal would be to do the homework as soon as it is assigned and then review it before class. Her plan to make those behaviors habits is simple: On Tuesdays and Thursdays after history, she walks to the library and picks a quiet place to study. (She has set the video cassette recorder to record her favorite soap.) It has only been two hours since the math class, so she still remembers what went on in class. She starts working on the homework problems. If she gets confused or stuck, she takes a short break and then attempts the problem again. If she still cannot do it, she leaves it and attempts other problems. After working on several others, she again attempts the confusing one(s). If she’s successful, she completes her work and goes home. If there are unsolved problems, she goes to one of the campus learning labs and requests help. Several days later, she takes thirty minutes before math class to look over the problems and quickly work one or two. She’s ready for class. After two weeks, it’s automatic for her to go to the library after history class. The habit is in place.
       Two habits that can transform the quality of your life are simple and powerful. When something needs to be done, DO IT. Do it right away. Don’t put it off. You will just think about it and feel guilty. The longer you delay, the guiltier you will feel. Whether it is getting out of bed and getting cleaned up or picking up the trash or reading the chapter–just do it.

       Give yourself ten minutes. If you get up ten minutes earlier in the morning, you won’t have to rush. If you leave for class or an appointment ten minutes earlier, you arrive on time, regardless of traffic or parking. That extra ten minutes reduces stress, and it also reduces the likelihood that you will make a mistake because you are hurrying. That extra ten minutes adds quality to your life.
       Being a successful college student is a full-time job. Treat it like a job. If you are going to miss a class, call your professor in advance, just as you would an employer. If you have an assignment, do it; that assignment is your work, as is learning in class. Tests and papers are how you demonstrate whether you have been doing your job. Your professors are your supervisors. They evaluate your performance, and your performance record is your academic transcript. Your transcript reflects your cumulative performance and is an accurate indicator of how well you have mastered the use of time. When you master time, then you are a professional.

                So…You will get the best result for your future…and do not forget to keep your smile!!!Take care!!!

“The Demonstration about the price of BBM” makes Indonesia is crying.


Today, I was going to my campus and found most of the students in campus ready to prepare theirself for doing a demonstration.

They would like to do that because of our government have said that the price of BBM like fuels, gases,benzenea, etc…will grow up.

I don’t know exactly, have they read about our government reasons? As we knew, that the fuels, and his friends was grow up not only in Indonesia but also in the world. So, why they didnt realise that it is one way to make our country do not left by another country. Then, they related this case into the political movement. They said that our President and his Vice should be go down from their seats. So, What are their reason for this??

In my mind, there is a group of people that use this situation to make a destroy in my country. So that, everywhere, I could find a demonstration. They blocked the main street, Vice President’s house in Makassar (about this…I knew this reason…because Mr.JK has ever said that the man who didnt agree with the government statement is the man who want to give a great subsidi for the rich men.. so the collegians in this town got angry). Honestly, I agree with his saying (Mr.JK) because (although I am not a rich one but I do not want if the people in our country always depend on the government).

Oh God…My country is crying now…when I am writing this…in outside full of the collegians, they screams to ask for the “BBM” will not grow up while they didnt consider about another activities…there are crowded in the way… I couldn’t take my lunch because the street so crowded..I also couldnt attend our lecturer because they seem to retain us to follow the lecture.]

I remember about one song from John Lennon(if i am not wrong)…that is “the end of the world”. Yeah…this situation like it…

They do not want to think another way to develop our country. They just punish that our President and his Vice got an opportunity from this case. In fact,..if they want to think that our President should be sad caused of this. They want our President will not lead us again…

Hey…Our country is crying…do you still remember when the Semanggi was happened???there were so many people died.. The collegians claimed the government to change the political system but absolutely…they got the same thing in this year…

Why we have to punish a few people. Why we do not grow to combat another problems together by make an unity strong?? Make clean your thinking and be the good person…so that you will get the best result…

I have a word that is ” if you Do the best, you will get the better…and believe that Dream will come true if you believe ALLAh.”

Please…Stop the Demonstration just for an usefull thing. Let we hold our hands together to save our nation from the stupidness. Because the Improving of our country is not depend on the price of BBM but it is depend on the greatness or smartness of the people of our country…

I believe that Indonesia will be better than anothers….Indonesia is a rich country with the culture and smile….Let we face all of the problem with cooling down our mind and keep smile.Okay….

In my mind,

Kenaikan harga BBM


Pagi ini aku berangkat ke kampus dengan semangat ’45 untuk mengikuti perkuliahan. 

Setelah tiba di depan kampus, aku turun dari pete-pete. Terdengar kebisingan dari teman-temanku yang meneriakkan penurunan harga BBM. Akhirnya, dengan semangat ’45 yang berkurang menjadi 0,45 aku mengurungkan niat untuk memasuki pintu kampus. Terlebih lagi saat itu juga aku menerima sms dari teman bahwa dosen telah keluar dari ruangan.

Lalu dengan diiringi teriakan-teriakan dari para pendemo, aku melangkahkan kaki menuju tempat aku dapat menumpahkan curahan hatiku. Dan akhirnya, kalian bisa membacanya sekarang.

Menyikapi soal kenaikan harga BBM…

Seperti yang telah dilansir oleh Antara,” Jakarta (ANTARA News) – Harga minyak mentah di pasar internasional semakin mencemaskan hati. Pada Selasa (6/5) harga “emas hitam” telah mencapai angka tertinggi, 122 dolar AS per barel di bursa London

Harga minyak mentah bahkan diduga bisa melonjak lagi hingga 150-200 dolar AS per barel, karena berkurangnya pasokan antara lain dari Nigeria yang para pekerjanya melakukan mogok serta serangan kelompok “militan”.

Sementara itu, Iran yang juga merupakan produsen utama “emas hitam” masih menolak pemeriksaan internasional atas” fasilitas nuklirnya” yang dituduh AS digunakan untuk membuat “senjata pemusnah massal”.

Kenaikan harga minyak mentah yang telah mencapai dua kali lipatnya dalam waktu setahun telah memaksa pemerintah Indonesia untuk menaikkan harga bahan bakar (BBM), dalam waktu dekat ini, karena sekalipun Indonesia merupakan produsen, tapi negara ini juga harus mengimpor minyak untuk mencukupi kebutuhan dalam negeri.”

Nah….yang perlu dipertanyakan saat ini adalah berapa persen kenaikan dari harga BBM tersebut? Karena mau tidak mau, sudi atau tidak sudi, BBM akan tetap naik.

Buat teman-temanku yang sangat senang meneriakkan diturunkannya harga BBM, marilah kita mencari solusi yang tepat untuk memakmurkan bangsa ini. Masih banyak jalan untuk menciptakan ekonomi yang baik buat negeri ini.

Jika kita selangkah lebih maju untuk berpikiran positif, maka akan menghasilkan seribu jalan yang lebih bagus untuk kemajuan negeri kita. Jadikanlah bangsa ini sebagai bangsa yang sanggup untuk berpikir dan berusaha. Janganlah selalu merecoki pemikiran masyarakat awam dengan demo yang menentang kenaikan
BBM. Marilah kita sama-sama berjuang untuk menghasilkan penerus yang berpikiran positif.

 

 

dampak internet bagi pelajar


Dampak Internet pada pergaulan mahasiswa, siswa SD,SMP & SMA

           

 

Internet sbg Sarana Komunikasi Mahasiswa

 

Sejalan dengan perkembangan zaman, kemajuan teknologi internet juga semakin maju.  ‘Internet’ adalah jaringan komputer yang dapat menghubungkan suatu komputer atau jaringan komputer dengan jaringan komputer lain, sehingga dapat berkomunikasi atau berbagi data tanpa melihat jenis komputer itu sendiri.  Pada tahun 1999, jumlah komputer yang telah dihubungkan dengan internet di seluruh dunia mencapai lebih dari 40 juta dan jumlah ini terus bertambah setiap hari.  Saat ini jumlah situs web mencapai jutaan, bahkan mungkin trilyunan, isinya memuat bermacam-macam topik.  Tentu saja, situs-situs itu menjadi sumber informasi baik yang positif ataupun negatif.  Informasi dikatakan positif apabila bermanfaat untuk penelitiaan.

Quarterman dan Mitchell membagi kegunaan internet dalam empat kategori, yaitu:

  1. Internet sebagai media komunikasi, merupakan fungsi internet yang paling banyak digunakan dimana setiap pengguna internet dapat berkomunikasi dengan pengguna lainnya dari seluruh dunia.
  2. Media pertukaran data, dengan menggunakan email, newsgroup, ftp dan www (world wide web – jaringan situs-situs web) para pengguna internet di seluruh dunia dapat saling bertukar informasi dengan cepat dan murah.
  3. Media untuk mencari informasi atau data, perkembangan internet yang pesat, menjadikan www sebagai salah satu sumber informasi yang penting dan akurat.
  4. Fungsi komunitas, internet membentuk masyarakat baru yang beranggotakan para pengguna internet dari seluruh dunia.  Dalam komunitas ini pengguna internet dapat berkomunikasi, mencari informasi, berbelanja, melakukan transaksi bisnis, dan sebagainya.  Karena sifat internet yang mirip dengan dunia kita sehari-hari, maka internet sering disebut sebagai cyberspace atau virtual world (dunia maya).

Oleh karena itu, pastilah kita  ingin mengetahui fungsi internet serta fasilitas apa, di mana, bagaimana, mengapa, kepada dan dari siapa mahasiswa tersebut menggunakan internet untuk berkomunikasi.

 

Pada umumnya, para pengguna internet menggunakan internet yang tersedia di warung-warung internet atau yang lebih dikenal dengan istilah ‘warnet’.  Hal ini karena biayanya lebih murah dibandingkan dengan menggunakan internet pribadi. 

 

Perlu diketahui bahwa mahasiswa belum bekerja, dan masih bergantung dari dana yang diberikan oleh orang tua mereka.  Keadaan ini merupakan salah satu penyebab dimana mereka akan menggunakan komputer yang terhubung dengan internet. Pada umumnya, biaya menggunakan internet adalah sebesar tiga ribu lima ratus rupiah per jam.  Tentu saja, biaya ini relatif mahal karena mahasiswa yang masih banyak tergantung dari dana yang diberikan orang tua perhari atau per mingu atau per bulan.  Maka, komunikasi para mahasiswa lewat internet menjadi terbatas oleh biaya.

 

 

 

Situs Web

World Wide Web yang sering disingkat www merupakan fasilitas internet yang paling banyak digunakan saat ini di samping email.  Situs web adalah informasi yang dapat diakses oleh seluruh pengguna internet dari seluruh dunia dengan menggunakan program yang disebut Web Browser misalnya Netscape Navigator dan Microsoft Internet Explorer.  Informasi yang ditempatkan dalam situs web itu dapat berupa tulisan, gambar, animasi, suara, dan video klip.  

 

Sebagai sarana komunikasi , Sistus web tersebut berguna untuk mencari data, berita, mengikuti perkembangan ilmu pengetahuan baru, dan lain lain.  Misalnya, melalui pengamatan banyak mahasiswa mengunjungi web situs seperti friendster, detik, satuwanita, yahoo, CNN, Kompas dan sebagainya.  Selain itu, mahasiswa bisa mempunyai situs web sendiri untuk menyebarluaskan ide-ide dan pendapat mereka sendiri kepada seluruh dunia. 

 

Walaupun ada banyak manfaat situs web, juga ada banyak masalah.  Masalah yang paling besar adalah bahwa informasi yang disebarkan di internet tidak selalu benar.  Hal ini terjadi karena situs web tidak harus memberikan informasi yang benar dan akurat, dan tidak ada tanggung jawab atas kebenaran informasi yang disebarluaskan.  Masalah yang kedua adalah pornografi yang merupakan dampak negatif.  Namun, pornografi itu tidak harus dicari dengan sengaja, bisa saja mendapatkan pornografi dengan pencarian data dan file musik mp3.  Dari pengamatan yang mendalam, tiga puluh tiga persen dengan sengaja mencari pornografi di www, dan bukan hanya laki-laki tetapi juga perempuan.  Walaupun demikian, kebanyakan adalah mahasiswa yang dengan sengaja mencari pornografi.  Sedangkan, yang tidak dengan sengaja mendapatkan pornografi sebanyak lima puluh sembilan persen. 

 

Sering kali, orang ingin mengetahui dari mana asalnya pornografi itu.  Biasanya, pornografi yang dicari mahasiswa adalah pornografi Barat, yaitu pornografi yang memuat tentang orang Amerika Serikat, Belanda, Perancis atau negara Barat lain.  Namun, semakin lama semakin banyak pornografi <ST1:COUNTRY-REGIoN>Indonesia</ST1:COUNTRY-REGIoN> sudah tersedia melalui internet, dan kadang-kadang pornografi itu melibatkan mahasiswa <ST1:COUNTRY-REGIoN>Indonesia</ST1:COUNTRY-REGIoN>.  Baru-baru ini, di internet, ada artikel tentang dua mahasiswa Bandung yang merekam adegan intim dengan kamera video.  Tidak disangka, hasil rekaman ini beredar bak VCD porno komersial.  Belakangan, file image dan klip yang heboh ini mulai bergentayangan di internet.

 

Jadi, sisi negatif dari www adalah pornografi yang dengan mudah dilihat dan hal ini memberikan dampak yang buruk bagi generasi muda <ST1:COUNTRY-REGIoN>Indonesia</ST1:COUNTRY-REGIoN>.

 

Email

Tujuan mahasiswa dalam menggunakan fasilitas internet bermacam-macam.  Banyak mahasiswa menggunakan internet untuk penelitian, atau mencari berita asing, tetapi yang paling populer adalah email.  Email itu adalah surat menyurat secara elektronik di mana pesan yang dikirimkan akan sampai dalam waktu singkat.  Pesan email tidak hanya berupa tulisan tetapi dapat disertai dengan file gambar, suara, animasi, dan lain lain.  Selain itu, email dapat dikirimkan kepada ratusan orang hanya dalam satu kali pengiriman.  Makanya, email ini menjadi penting untuk komunikasi dalam zaman modern ini, dan terutama bagi para mahasiswa. 

 

Dalam pengamatan rata-rata mahasiswa yang pernah menggunakan internet mempunyai alamat email sendiri.  Alamat email mahasiswa itu semuanya bebas biaya seperti yahoomail atau hotmail yang terkenal.  Mereka lebih menyukai yahoomail atau hotmail karena iklan-iklan situs web itu berhasil mempengaruhi mereka dan provider email itu sangat terkenal tidak hanya di <ST1:COUNTRY-REGIoN>Indonesia</ST1:COUNTRY-REGIoN>, tetapi juga di seluruh dunia.

 

Tentu saja, email yang diterima tetapi tidak diharapkan bukan hanya SPAM.  Virus komputer juga sering diterima lewat email, dan topiknya juga tidak jelas.  Sayangnya, belum ada cara untuk menghentikan SPAM dan virus komputer tersebut.  Banyak perusahaan email gratis mempunyai ‘SPAM filter’ yang menghentikan penerimaan SPAM tetapi filter ini biasanya tidak efektif.  Mungkin di masa depan seseorang akan membuat fiter yang efektif tetapi saat ini SPAM dan virus tetap menjadi masalah besar.  Namun demikian, manfaat email masih melebihi dampak negatifnya.  Bagi mahasiswa TSM, email masih merupakan sarana komunikasi yang tercepat dan tercanggih untuk berkomunikasi dengan teman dan keluarga.  Email sudah menjadi pengganti yang baik dari surat biasa (atau dalam ‘bahasa internet’, snail mail) karena email tersebut diterima pada saat dan waktu yang sama dan tidak bisa dibaca oleh orang lain.

 

Chatting

Internet Relay Chat atau IRC atau sering disebut dengan chat atau chatting adalah forum diskusi online para pengguna internet dengan menggunakan tulisan sebagai alat untuk berdiskusi.  IRC ini menyediakan suatu cara untuk berkomunikasi secara langsung dengan orang-orang di seluruh dunia, dan tentu saja, antara mahasiswa.  IRC terdiri dari bermacam-macam jaringan server IRC (mesin-mesin untuk menghubungkan pemakai dengan IRC).  Para pengguna memiliki suatu program (yang disebut ‘client’) untuk menghubungkan mereka dengan suatu server dari salah satu jaringan IRC tersebut.  Server-server ini yang akan mengirimkan informasi dari satu server dan ke server yang lain dalam jaringan yang sama.  Saat ini terdapat ribuan grup chatting dalam berbagai bahasa dan topik.

 

Dari pengamatan hampir seluruhnya mahasiswa yang sering menggunakan internet juga pernah chatting.  Program yang sering digunakan untuk chatting ini adalah mIRC atau Yahoo Messenger.

Didalam chatting ini tidak jarang dari mereka melanjutkan hubungannya dari sekedar ngobrol di internet menjadi sebuah pertemuan langsung atau disebut kopdar (Kopi Darat). Bahkan ada juga yang akhirnya menjalin hubungan kekasih setelah mereka sering mengobrol di internet dan kemudian saling bertemu.

 

 

brb

be right back

segera kembai

bbl

be back later

nanti akan kembali

np

no problem

tidak apa-apa

lol

laughing out loud

tertawa terbahak-bahak

asl?

age, sex, location?

Berapa umurmu? Peremupuan/laki-laki? Dari mana?

Hlo mh

 

hallo #mahasiswa

Join dong

 

Masuklah!

u kul/ker?

 

Kamu kuliah atau kerja?

ce

 

cewek

co

 

Cowok

 

Tiga atau Lima tahun yang lalu, penggunaan telepon genggam sudah semakin popular di Indonesia, terutama di antara generasi mudah pada umumnya, dan mahasiswa TSM pada khususnya.  Dengan menggunakan fasilitas Short Message Service (SMS), bahasa yang digunakan berkembang sebagaimana layaknya ‘bahasa internet’.  Kata-kata yang digunakan dalam ber-SMS sering kali disingkat, dan ejaannya tidak baik dan benar pada saat mengirim pesan kepada teman.  Memang, mahasiswa yang sering chatting melalui internet juga mempunyai telepon genggam dan menggunakan ‘bahasa internet’ untuk SMSnya.  Jadi, ‘bahasa internet’ juga biasa digunakan untuk ber-SMS.  Menurut pendapat saya, penggunaan ‘bahasa internet’ atau ‘bahasa chatting’ itu semakin meluas di masyarakat.  Mungkin di masa depan, kita akan mengembangkan bahasa yang baru dengan tata bahasa dan istilah-istilah baru.

 

INTERNET DI SD, SMP & SMA

Dalam buku ‘Education on the Internet’, Jill H. Ellsworth, Sams Publishing ada topik ‘The Internet in Elementary, Middle, and High School’, dimana dibahas manfaat apa saja yang bisa dipetik dari Internet untuk tingkat sekolah SD, SMP dan SMA. Semua itu terjadi di Amerika Serikat. Maka timbul pertanyaan bagaimana di negara lain? Berkat elektronik mail, jawaban segera diperoleh. Inilah jawaban dari negara Australia, Ly Fie (ly.fie.sugianto@eng.monash.edu.au) telah menanyakan kepada beberapa anak. “Saya kenal beberapa anak yang bersekolah di sini dan setahu saya, Internet facility masuk ke sekolah-sekolah di Australia belum lama. Mungkin baru tahun lalu. Saya sendiri belum pernah mendengar mereka bercerita tentang Internet stuff, tapi, mereka cukup familiar dengan e-mail, walaupun fasilitas inipun masih terbatas. Tapi, seingat saya, ada seorang anak tingkat high school yang mempunyai tugas untuk menyelidiki manfaat Internet dalam pendidikan. Saya bisa menanyakan atau menyelidiki penerapan Internet di high school.”

Beberapa hari kemudian datang lagi E-mail dari Ly Fie (Australia). “Saya sudah berbincang dengan seorang anak (berumur 12 tahun) yang bersekolah di Kilvington Baptist School. Saya sering sekali mengikuti kegiatan-kegiatan dari sekolah ini. (* percaya atau tidak, saya TERTARIK SEKALI dan SENANG SEKALI berada di lingkungan pendidikan, entah itu tingkat sekolah ataupun university *) Sejauh ini, saya menghadiri annual concert mereka, malam pentas, bazaar sekolah, ataupun study tour, seperti nonton Macbeth (bareng sama anak berumur 11 & 12 yang mempelajari English/English literature). Sekarang, ada 4 orang anak (saya kenal dari Sunday School) yang bersekolah di sana. Saya tanya Sandra apakah Internet banyak dipakai di Kilvington. Dia bilang, ya, mulai dari tahun ini. Dan justru, anak-anak tingkat SD yang diajari dan dibimbing oleh guru-guru mereka. Tentu saja, mereka senang sekali. Dan mereka juga diawasi, sebab ada bahan-bahan Internet yg tidak patut dibaca oleh mereka. Mereka bahkan “surf” pada jam-jam istirahat. Sandra dan teman-temannya (tingkat SMA) justru merasa iri, sebab mereka tidak diajari langsung. Mereka dianggap sanggup untuk explore sendiri. Dan, tidak banyak dari mereka yg mempergunakannya karena faktor waktu. (NB: sekolah ini adalah sekolah putri. Saya rasa di sekolah khusus putra, para pelajar lebih berantusias dalam mempergunakan fasilitas tsb. Bukan sexist, tapi, saya lihat, dari teman-teman & anak-anak yang saya tutor, pelajar putra memang lebih adventureous dalam hal ber-komputer. Saya bener ga pak?). Yang dia ingat, stuff yang mereka bisa access termasuk: e-mail facility, Internet & netscape (software utk meng access WWW). Apakah ini info yg bapak ingin ketahui? Karena Sandra tidak banyak menggunakan Internet, saya akan tanyakan seorang anak tingkat SD dari sekolah putra, tentang manfaat Internet untuk dia & kawan-kawan sebayanya. Mungkin minggu depan baru saya bisa e-mail balik ke bapak. Sekian dulu.”

Benar saja, minggu depannya Ly Fie menulis sebagai berikut. “Pak, saya sudah tanya seorg anak berumur 7 tahun di sekolah yang sangat baik (boys school; saya lupa namanya) dan ternyata, di sekolah ini, Internet belum dipakai oleh mereka. Mereka hanya menggunakan komputer sejauh word processing (word for windows) dll. Jadi, kesimpulan nya, penggunaan Internet juga belum meluas di sini. (* walaupun sample space terlalu sedikit untuk menarik kesimpulan *).”

Kalau di atas adalah jawaban dari Australia, bagaimana jawaban dari negeri Belanda? Ini e-mail yang dikirimkan oleh Dr. Ed van den Berg (edberg@nat.vu.nl). “Ternyata Internet hampir belum dimanfaatkan di sekolah-sekolah di negeri Belanda. Hanya beberapa sekolah saja yang terlibat dalam proyek kerja sama antara beberapa sekolah di Eropa. Beberapa sekolah lain yang mengikuti semacam jaringan dengan modem-modem. Tentu situasi ini akan berubah dalam tahun-tahun yang akan datang. Saya tahu mengenai beberapa proyek di AS dan mungkin juga di beberapa negara lain mengenai: (a) Jaringan antara sekolah, siswa dapat berkomunikasi dengan siswa dari sekolah lain ataupun sekolah di negara lain. Misalnya, siswa yang sedang belajar bahasa Inggeris dapat berkomunikasi dengan siswa di negara lain dengan bahasa asing ini. Dengan geografi, siswa dapat berkomunikasi juga. (b) Jaringan antar sekolah dengan tujuan mengumpulkan data untuk penelitian, misalnya siswa digunakan untuk mengumpulkan data mengenai pencemaran lingkungan, misalnya siswa melakukan ukuran tertentu mengenai polusi udara dan air. Lalu semua data digumpulkan di satu tempat. (c) Satu sekolah ataupun satu kelas atau satu siswa saja mencari informasi di Internet mengenai topik tertentu, misalnya dalam rangka bidang studi tertentu atau proyek siswa tertentu. Minggu lalu saya mendapat informasi mengenai suatu proyek environmental studies. Tetapi kemungkinan besar kurikulum (ini di AS) terlalu menyimpang dari kurikulum Indonesia. Salam, Ed van den Berg.”

Kalau Australia dan Belanda saat ini belum terlalu memanfaatkan Internet untuk tingkat SMA ke bawah, berarti kita juga tidak perlu kuatir dengan teknologi Audio Visual khususnya Internet di Indonesia karena kebetulan baru setahun berkembangnya. Tetapi tidak perlu kuatir tidak berarti tidak waspada, karena perkembangan teknologi ini sangat cepat.

KESIMPULAN

Dari pengamatan yang mendalam ini, bisa diketahui bahwa semakin lama penggunaan internet semakin penting sebagai sarana komunikasi mahasiswa .  Fasilitas internet seperti email, www dan YM/IRC sudah sangat popular di antara para mahasiswa, baik sebagai sarana komunikasi maupun alat untuk mencari data untuk penelitian lain juga sebagai alat untuk memperluas pergaulan dan perkenalan antar pengguna internet. Selain itu, penggunaan internet telah menimbulkan adanya bahasa baru yang dikenal sebagai ‘bahasa internet’.  Memang, bahasa yang dipakai dengan menggunakan internet tergantung pada siapa dan dengan siapa pengguna internet berkomunikasi.  Tetapi, walaupun ada banyak manfaat penggunaan internet, juga ada dampak yang negatif bagi mahasiswa. Misalnya, pornografi dan SPAM sudah menjadi masalah besar.  Sampai saat ini belum ada cara yang efektif untuk menghindar dari dampak negatif tersebut.  Akan tetapi, karena dampak yang positif juga banyak, maka mau tidak mau, suka tidak suka, kita harus menggunakan internet sebagai sarana komunikasi yang tercepat dan tercanggih untuk saat ini.  Sebagai sarana komunikasi mahasiswa, saya pasti bahwa di masa depan penggunaan internet akan menjadi lebih luas di kampus, dan berkomunikasi lewat internet itu akan menjadi sepopular penggunaan telpon.

 

 

Melihat dampak negatif dan positif dari teknologi Audio Visual khususnya Internet di atas, dapat disimpulkan bahwa bila dibandingkan dengan dampak negatif maka dampak positifnya adalah jauh lebih banyak, jadi tidak mungkin kalau sampai dilarang di Inonesia. Hal ini juga ditanyakan oleh majalah Infokomputer, Vol IX No. 7 Juli 1995 kepada Direktur Jenderal Radio Televisi & Film Alex Leo Zulkarnain. Infokomputer bertanya: “Apakah sebenarnya masyarakat Indonesia sudah perlu bergabung ke Internet?”.. Alex Leo Z. menjawab: “Masalah bukan merasa perlu, tetapi ‘barang’ itu datang ke wilayah kita dan dalam pergaulan internasional kalau kita tidak memanfaatkan itu kita akan rugi. Karena itu akan jalan terus. Kita tidak bisa menghambat. Yang harus kita selesaikan sekarang adalah bagaimana kita memanfaatkan Internet itu untuk kepentingan nasional. Tanggal 1 Juni 1995 dalam Dewan Telekomunikasi sudah dibicarakan secara mendalam di bawah pimpinan Joop Ave sendiri. Saya kebetulan anggota Dewan Telekomunikasi. Dan ada kesepakatan kita akan bentuk satu tim pengamat dalam waktu singkat ini. Mereka nanti bisa memberikan saran-saran kepada pemerintah tentang apa yang harus dan dapat kita lakukan. Pada prinsipnya kita ingin supaya kita tidak hanya sebagai user Internet. Kita ingin juga agar ada input kita dalam Internet dan itu akan kita usahakan. Kalau menolak sama sekali (Internet) saya kita tidak bisa karena kegunaan Internet itu sudah dibuat sedemikian rupa sehingga sangat (terjangkau). Kalau dihitung uangnya mungkin tidak terlalu besar. Murah sekali!”.

Mengenai dampak positif dan negatifnya, Alex Leo Z. menguraikan: “Saya kita semua langkah itu ada positif dan negatifnya. Tidak bisa negatif semua, positif semua. Tetapi harus kita bedakan, harus bisa kita filter mana yang positif dan negatif bagi kita. Kita harus membuat daya tahan dan daya ketahanan nasional. Hanya itu satu-satunya cara. Pada akhirnya tidak ada jalan lain kecuali memperkuat diri masing-masing”.

Berdasarkan keterangan dari Alex Leo Z. jelas bahwa Internet tidak akan dilarang hadir di Indonesia. Memang dampak yang negatif untuk anak dan remaja sudah terlihat di Amerika Serikat sedangkan negara-negara lain belum. Walaupun demikian karena mencegah selalu lebih baik, maka ada baiknya masyarakat sudah disiapkan sejak dini dengan saran-saran berikut ini.

SARAN-SARAN

Untuk mengatasi atau lebih tepat mencegah dampak negatif terutama untuk anak-anak dan remaja buletin LEPISI Vo. 8 No. 10 Juli 1995 menyarankan sebagai berikut. Mencegah memang selalu lebih baik, cepat atau lambat komunikasi Audio visual khususnya Internet akan berada di depan mata kita. Lebih baik kita tahu lebih dahulu dari pada menyesal di kemudian hari.

  1. Online block: banyak dari pelayanan komersil, seperti American Online dan Prodigy mempunyai mekanisme untuk mengakses daerah terlarang dan tidak tepat untuk anak-anak. Jika anda bergabung pada pelayanan online, akrabkan dengannya dan gunakan dengan persetujuan. Khusus di Indonesia, Radnet – salah satu provider yang ada di Indonesia memang telah memblokir majalah-majalah porno yang terdapat di Internet seperti Playboy dan Penthouse.
  2. Cheklist: yakinkan bahwa anak-anak dan remaja tahu mana yang boleh dan tidak boleh. Jangan pernah berikan informasi pribadi kepada orang asing. Jangan melakukan pertemuan face to face dengan user yang lain tanpa persetujuan keluarga. Selalu ingat bahwa anonimitas (ketakbernamaan) dari Net dapat membuat orang menyembunyikan umur dan identitasnya.
  3. Menunggu: tetaplah nongkrong ketika anak-anak sedang melakukan sesuatu. Tanyakan favorit apa yang mereka lihat, biarkan mereka mengajarkan pada Anda beberapa ‘stroke’net. Jika Anda concern pada kegiatan anak pada online, cobalah berbicara pada mereka tentang hal tersebut. Buatlah komputer menjadi kegiatan keluarga sehingga dapat dinikmati dan didiskusikan bersama oleh seluruh keluarga.
  4. Lihatlah jam: Perhatikan berapa yang harus dibayar ketika anak menghabiskan waktunya di online. Banyak tagihan untuk BBS atau Online service. khususnya pada larut malam, mungkin merupakan indikasi dari suatu masalah.
  5. Special Software: Pertimbangkan pembelian software pembersih seperti Surfwatch, yang mana akan melindungi computer yang meload dari salah satu tempat access pada Internet yang diketahui berisi hal-hal sexual. Suatu usaha untuk mencari halaman Penthouse Web, sebagai contoh,menghasilkan tulisan di layar “Block by Surfwatch”.
  6. Anda tidak sendiri: Persatuan orang tua dan guru di sekolah atau kelompok lainnya yang concern terhadap masalah itu bersama- sama akan membawa kita ke tempat dimana kita dapat bertukar pengalaman dan mendapatkan support dari orang yang menghadapi masalah yang sama. Juga katakan pada tetangga, karena upaya Anda akan sia-sia jika anak di seberang rumah tanpa batas.

 Nah…saatnya anda memilih untuk menjadikan internet tersebut pada dampak yang positif atau negatif.

how to write a good CV???


Writing a good CV

What sort of CV (resume, if your prefer) is going to impress a DoS (Director of Studies) in a language school? Who better to ask than DoS at IH Barcelona, Evelyn Byrne…

“What am I looking for? Someone who’s got a good qualification from a reputable place,” is Evelyn’s immediate answer. She expanded on that: she’d much rather see a Cambridge ESOL qualification (CELTA, that is) and tends to be choosey about where it was taken – like, at what centre.

“Personally, I’m looking for Young Learner skills – ideally a qualification and experience, because that’s what is the demand is for. Upstairs in Company Training they want business skills but like most language schools we sometimes find it hard to meet the demand for properly qualified teachers for young learners.”

A professional looking CV

And as for the CV itself? “Nowadays, most look very professional ,” Evelyn says. (Now that’s something I guess we have to thank Bill Gates for.) So don’t, whatever you do, send off CVs that you hand wrote in pencil on a page ripped from an exercise book (and, believe me, I’ve seen some!). Basic word processing skills ought to help you with that (and a Word CV template may well come in handy).

“I want an e-mail address , too,” says Evelyn. “It’s just so much easier to contact people that way.” If you’ve not got a Yahoo! account, get one! Include your mobile phone number, too.

“Oh, and don’t include a lot of irrelevant professional experience,” Evelyn says. Like, if you worked in four different jobs as an accountant, or as a cinema usher, is it relevant? Now, on the other hand, if you coached a football team for 14 year olds, or worked with immigrant kids from deprived backgrounds, make sure you include that (particularly when you are starting out, having just done your CELTA, and are struggling a bit to find relevant teaching experience).

Meanwhile, along at Human Resources…

Along the corridor in the Human Resources Department, head of department Olga Luna agreed with that. “Keep it to one page if possible, and I’m really not interested in your school leaving certificate, or where you went to primary school, if you’ve got a university degree… Or a driving licence, either, if it’s not relevant to the position you’re applying for”. So that’s probably one thing you can leave off to keep it down to one page.

Olga also likes to see a good quality photograph too (no excuse for that nowadays, either!). A black-and-white image, one that has been reproduced from several early generations of photocopies, one that makes you look like a mad axe man is not going to land you an interview, far less a job.

It’s not necessary to be wearing a tie in the photograph, or look like you’ve just had your hair done for a school prom; what you want is to look like someone the DoS wouldn’t mind sitting in a classroom to be taught by.

And up in Company Training…

IH Barcelona also has a Company Training Department, which sends teachers out to companies to do business (and non business) English classes.

Bob Flory, the Director was someone else who stressed putting where and when you did CELTA, and what grade you got. “Your qualifications are the first thing we look for,” says Bob, “so it’s not a bad idea to put that section first. And remember to put things from most recent to oldest.”

“You definitely need to personalise the CV for the job you are applying for,” Bob says. Up in Company Training, for example, that means highlighting what businesses you might have worked for, in what capacity, what real world experience you’ve got- because they’re really looking for business experience. Four years as an accountant just might interest them – while it probably won’t interest the DoS in the language academy round the corner.

“What makes a CV stand out from the pile? What gets yours noticed?” As you might expect, Bob had quite a few good ideas on that [see side bar]. Bob also likes to see a “business-like font”, say Arial or Verdana or Tahoma – “nothing flowery”. You really want a job in competitive market, then you’ve got to take care of the details!

Bob must read literally hundreds of CVs – a point worth remembering when you start to write yours. A busy DoS is probably not going to waste much time on yours if you’ve not gone to a certain amount of trouble over it.

General advice

  • Use the minimum number of words to make the maximum impact
  • If you find it impossible to get your CV down to one page , make it two, but don’t go beyond that
  • Make it easy to scan read – there shouldn’t be so much on it that the highlights get lost
  • Using bullet points (as in this list, that is) will make it easier to scan
  • Include job titles (not just who you worked for) and your main responsibilities
  • Try to emphasise the skills that you required (and may have acquired) in the jobs you have done
  • Emphasise achievements – “action” verbs will help with that!
  • When you’ve finished writing your CV, ask yourself whether or not that what it says is going to make you stand out in the pile of other CVs from aspiring English teachers; if it’s not, go back to the drawing board!

 

Do !

Include what grades you got (especially if they were good!): an “A” or “B” on CELTA means you stand out. Merely “CELTA” on its own is the minimum expected.

If you do have teaching experience, include the levels and ages taught.

Do include language and computer skills. Your experience of learning languages is something that is relevant to a teaching post.

Do run a spell check on it (and remember that spell checkers are not infallible!)

Get someone else to read over it and make constructive criticism of it.

 

Don’t !

Don’t include lots of irrelevant work experience.

Don’t make handwritten amendments to your CV – retype it!

 

What makes a CV stand out from the pile ?

Your name is at the top, in a font size 4-6 points larger than the rest

It’s got your photo on it

It’s printed on decent paper, possibly very pale yellow or gray

It’s well-organised

 

introduction to business english


Business English – Introduction


More and more ELT professionals are teaching business English as an increasing number of learners prepare to use English in their current or future working environments. Business English is a particular type of ESP (English for Specific Purposes). It shares with other varieties of ESP a focus on a language corpus and particular kinds of communication in specific contexts.

Business English courses tend to be based on the needs of specific groups of learners. Learners want to learn business English for instrumental reasons. Some are preparing for future jobs in which they will use English, whereas others want to learn it to improve their current job performance in dealing with particular partners or customers.

Business English focuses on the language of business that learners need in the workplace. This can take the form of:

 

*                               Everyday language which is used in social situations

*                               General business language which can be used in a variety of business contexts

*                               Context specific language used by a particular industry or profession.

 

The precise mix of language taught in courses will depend upon the needs of particular groups of learners.

Business English courses also focus on business communication skills, for example, making presentations, taking part in meetings, writing reports. Courses tend to give learners the vocabulary and structure to develop these skills and the chance to practise using them.

Business English teachers work in a variety of contexts. They can teach in schools, colleges or universities or they might train employees in-company. Group size can vary from one-to-one teaching to small or larger classes.

Teaching Business English

Apart from teaching young learners , one area in which many people find work is in teaching business English. Like young learners, it’s an area in which – at least in Spain – there’s a demand, and it’s a demand that is not always met by a ready supply of teachers with business qualifications.

For some, it is possible to find sufficient in-company work to be able to do it all privately. Many one-to-one private classes are also with business people. And for others, the language school they work for also sends its teachers out to companies they have contracts with – as is the case, for example, with IH Barcelona, which has an entire “Company Training” department.

No business experience?

In fact, however, having no business experience is not necessarily an impediment to teaching business English, as we found out when we talked to some of the teaching staff here at IH Barcelona.

Liz Wootton did business as part of her degree and worked for a large business news company for 5 years so that the entries on a balance sheet, for example, hold few mysteries for her. But she says that she knows a lot of people that teach business English that don’t have a business background. In other words, if you’ve got the experience, it helps – and definitely put it on your CV -but if you don’t, don’t think that rules you out. Abi Watson , who has no business background to speak of, says “I can see how it would help, but it doesn’t necessarily hinder you”.

Learning the jargon

If it really is a “proper” business English class you are teaching the chances are that you will be following a course book and syllabus, and there are some excellent books on the market which, apart from anything else, brief the teacher on the business background to each unit. Following a course book also means that you can research the topic in advance – and, thanks to the Internet, that shouldn’t prove too difficult. If you also start to take an interest in reading the finance pages of any good newspaper (perhaps again on the Web), then you’re well on your way to at least learning the business jargon.

In some cases, clearly, you may find yourself teaching business English. Celta-course.com webmaster Tom Walton taught business English to Fourth Year Business Management students at one of Barcelona’s universities, doing things like case studies and had students writing business plans – but that’s not the experience of the staff we talked to at IH.

Business – or general English?

In fact in many “business English” classes they actually want general rather than business English. “They know the technical terms already,” says Harpreet Kaur . “What they want is greater fluency, to be able to use it socially and so on.” In the large Internet firm Harpreet worked for last year some of her students also wanted to be able to put English on their CVs – so that they could move up or, in some cases, on.

One thing that makes a business class different from the average language school class, says Liz, is that the students are “studying English because they need it for work – not for an exam”, and so it’s the teacher’s task to give them that language.

In Abi’s experience, there was “not that much difference” between the business and “normal” classes she has taught. “You may do slightly different tasks but the real difference that I’ve found is in the group dynamics.” In language school classes you will probably find more homogeneous levels, and everyone is equal – whereas a business class could involve very different levels within the class, and perhaps the boss and the secretary and so on, which you have to deal carefully with.

Liz always goes to her company classes “with completely different lesson plans” as you sometimes turn up to find most of them away at a conference. “You don’t know if there’s going to be one or five, the strong people or the weak ones, the ones that want to do speaking or writing… You have to go prepared to adapt to who’s there, the mood on that day,” Liz says. Things like that can make teaching a business English class more difficult than the actual business English itself, Abi and Liz agreed.

Teaching Business English

Apart from teaching young learners , one area in which many people find work is in teaching business English. Like young learners, it’s an area in which – at least in Spain – there’s a demand, and it’s a demand that is not always met by a ready supply of teachers with business qualifications.

For some, it is possible to find sufficient in-company work to be able to do it all privately. Many one-to-one private classes are also with business people. And for others, the language school they work for also sends its teachers out to companies they have contracts with – as is the case, for example, with IH Barcelona, which has an entire “Company Training” department.

No business experience?

In fact, however, having no business experience is not necessarily an impediment to teaching business English, as we found out when we talked to some of the teaching staff here at IH Barcelona.

Liz Wootton did business as part of her degree and worked for a large business news company for 5 years so that the entries on a balance sheet, for example, hold few mysteries for her. But she says that she knows a lot of people that teach business English that don’t have a business background. In other words, if you’ve got the experience, it helps – and definitely put it on your CV -but if you don’t, don’t think that rules you out. Abi Watson , who has no business background to speak of, says “I can see how it would help, but it doesn’t necessarily hinder you”.

Learning the jargon

If it really is a “proper” business English class you are teaching the chances are that you will be following a course book and syllabus, and there are some excellent books on the market which, apart from anything else, brief the teacher on the business background to each unit. Following a course book also means that you can research the topic in advance – and, thanks to the Internet, that shouldn’t prove too difficult. If you also start to take an interest in reading the finance pages of any good newspaper (perhaps again on the Web), then you’re well on your way to at least learning the business jargon.

In some cases, clearly, you may find yourself teaching business English. Celta-course.com webmaster Tom Walton taught business English to Fourth Year Business Management students at one of Barcelona’s universities, doing things like case studies and had students writing business plans – but that’s not the experience of the staff we talked to at IH.

Business – or general English?

In fact in many “business English” classes they actually want general rather than business English. “They know the technical terms already,” says Harpreet Kaur . “What they want is greater fluency, to be able to use it socially and so on.” In the large Internet firm Harpreet worked for last year some of her students also wanted to be able to put English on their CVs – so that they could move up or, in some cases, on.

One thing that makes a business class different from the average language school class, says Liz, is that the students are “studying English because they need it for work – not for an exam”, and so it’s the teacher’s task to give them that language.

In Abi’s experience, there was “not that much difference” between the business and “normal” classes she has taught. “You may do slightly different tasks but the real difference that I’ve found is in the group dynamics.” In language school classes you will probably find more homogeneous levels, and everyone is equal – whereas a business class could involve very different levels within the class, and perhaps the boss and the secretary and so on, which you have to deal carefully with.

Liz always goes to her company classes “with completely different lesson plans” as you sometimes turn up to find most of them away at a conference. “You don’t know if there’s going to be one or five, the strong people or the weak ones, the ones that want to do speaking or writing… You have to go prepared to adapt to who’s there, the mood on that day,” Liz says. Things like that can make teaching a business English class more difficult than the actual business English itself, Abi and Liz agreed.

Do you need a business background to teach business English?

“No,” says Bob Flory, head of Company Training at IH Barcelona. “Having one is an advantage,” he says, “but unless you’re working in a very particular area of business, requiring specialist knowledge, or teaching business skills such as giving presentations, it’s not really necessary to have been in business in order to be able to teach business people language skills.”

Partly that’s because a lot of teaching ‘business English’ in fact involves teaching English in companies to people who use English for work, rather than for ‘business’. “You’ll often find you have quite a range of people in different jobs in the same group and you’re teaching them to communicate effectively in English rather than providing them with technical terms they are probably already familiar with,” Bob says.

 

cross cultural understanding


CROSS CULTURAL UNDERSTANDING

Terminology within the cross cultural communications field can sometimes be baffling to those reading the literature, websites or promotional material. Many ask what is the difference between ‘intercultural’ and ‘cross cultural’? What is ‘cross cultural awareness’ as opposed to ‘cross cultural knowledge’ or, are ‘cultural sensitivity’ and ‘cultural competence’ the same thing?

With a view to clarifying some of the above mentioned terminology, this article will examine terms used in relation to building cross cultural understanding within the business world.

Cross cultural understanding simply refers to the basic ability of people within business to recognise, interpret and correctly react to people, incidences or situations that are open to misunderstanding due to cultural differences. The fundamental intention of cross cultural training is to equip the learner(s) with the appropriate skills to attain cross cultural understanding.

Once the foundations of cross cultural understanding have been laid, the learner(s), either through continued training or experiences within the workplace, gradually attains a more acute appreciation of cultural differences. The different types of appreciation are cross cultural knowledge, cross cultural awareness, cross cultural sensitivity and cross cultural competence. Although all the terms may appear similar in meaning, subtle differences exist between them.

‘Cross Cultural Knowledge’ is critical to basic cross cultural understanding. Without it cross cultural appreciation cannot take place. It refers to a surface level familiarization with cultural characteristics, values, beliefs and behaviours.

‘Cross Cultural Awareness’ develops from cross cultural knowledge as the learner understands and appreciates a culture internally. This may also be accompanied by changes within the learner’s behaviour and attitudes such as a greater flexibility and openness.

‘Cross Cultural Sensitivity’ is a natural by-product of awareness and refers to an ability to read into situations, contexts and behaviours that are culturally rooted and be able to react to them appropriately. An suitable response necessitates that the actor no longer carries his/her own culturally determined interpretations of the situation or behaviour (i.e. good/bad, right/wrong) which can only be nurtured through both cross cultural knowledge and awareness.

‘Cross Cultural Competence’ is and should be the aim of all those dealing with multicultural clients, customers or colleagues. ‘Competence’ is the final stage of cross cultural understanding and signifies the actor’s ability to work effectively across cultures. Cross cultural competency is beyond knowledge, awareness and sensitivity in that it is the digestion, integration and transformation of all the skills and information acquired through them, applied to create cultural synergy within the workplace.